After an election
Usually, once the election is over, the Governor General will ask the leader of the political party that won the most seats in the House of Commons to become Prime Minister and form the government. A majority government occurs when the ruling party holds more than half of the House of Common seats; if they have less than half, they form a minority government.
The ruling party remain in government providing they are supported by a majority of MPs (known as having their confidence). If the ruling party loses a vote in the House of Commons on an important decision, for example the Canadian budget, the Prime Minister will usually request that the Governor General, representing the Sovereign, should call a new election.
Cabinet ministers, who run the departments of federal government, are appointed by the Prime Minister; generally they are MPs. The Cabinet makes numerous significant decisions regarding the governance of Canada, but always, especially when introducing new laws or proposing a budget, the House of Commons may question them and stop them if they have a majority.
The parties that did not succeed in the election are called the opposition parties. The party that has the most MPs is called the Official Opposition or Her Majesty’s Loyal Opposition. The opposition will try to oppose or improve any proposals performed by government. At the moment in Canada the House of Commons mainly comprises three significant political parties: Conservatives, Liberals, and New Democrats.