Around the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the Canadian economy expanded rapidly and industrialisation was extended. Around this period one million settlers came from each of Great Britain and the USA.
The first French-Canadian prime minister since Confederation was Sir Wilfred Laurier (whose portrait features on the five-dollar bill) promoted westward immigration. The new railway enabled many immigrants to put down roots in the West before the First World War and greatly expanded agriculture in the region. These immigrants included 170,000 Ukrainians, 115,000 Poles, and many thousands of others from other European countries.